This method tells SPSS exactly how to map each old category onto a new category. Setting up multiple responses set Now we want to group together Q1c-Q1f so that SPSS knows that it is actually a question with multiple responses. Published with written permission from SPSS Statistics, IBM Corporation. Cite. To set priorities, you just change the order of the IF statements. To specify the conditions under which the recode should be applied, however, you will need to click Include if case satisfies condition. If v#a is the priority, then you would put the IF statement for v#a after v#b (and consequently after other variables for which v#a takes priority). The ELSE line tells SPSS to perform its nested computation on all other values not accounted for by the previous conditional statements. A typical grading scheme in the United States is: Recall that the Range specification in Recode into Different Variables allows us to specify a range of values which includes both endpoints. The multiple response sets that are defined through Analyze - Multiple Response - Define Variable Sets only exist for as long as that current session of IBM SPSS Statistics is open. Is it possible, if more than one choice is indicated , for the recode to use a priority system in choosing which one to specify in the new variable? The Multiple Response Frequencies dialog box. Suppose we want to recode these scores to have a letter grade using the scheme described above. Search, None of the above, continue with my search. This is especially true if using the "Lowest thru", "thru Highest", or "Range - through" options. IF v#f=1 ethnic=6. RECODE famimpor (4=3). Note that you can use the letter combinations or the mathematical symbols in your statements. I can easily recode numeric variables using the GUI and the dialogue box shown below: But when i enter a string variable into the same dialogue box the option to define the new value as "System-missing" is not available: This note demonstrates the use of Multiple Responses Analysis in analyzing multiple responses data using SPSS software. Recoding into the same variable (Transform > Recode into Same Variables) works the same way as described above, except for that any changes made will permanently alter the original variable. Remember that each individual's results go on a separate line (row) in SPSS Statistics. Recode into Different Variables was able to correctly account for all possible values in that situation. If you ever needed to use the variable in its original form (or wanted to double-check your steps), that information would be lost. In SPSS, there are three basic options for recoding variables: Each of these options allows you to re-categorize an existing variable. Dichotomize Multiple Variables SPSS Recode Example 2. 2 The default specification for a recode is to Include all cases. This method uses ranges. Recode into Different Variables and DO IF syntax create a new variable without modifying the original variable, while Recode into Same Variables will permanently overwrite the original variable. IF v#d=1 ethnic=4. Identify the variables representing the values for that set. When you are finished defining the conditions under which your recode will be applied to the data, click Continue. We'll dichotomize variables v4 to v6 by changing values 1, 2 and 3 into 0 and values 4 and 5 into 1 as implied by recode v4 to v6 (1,2,3 = 0)(4,5 = 1). Syntax to read the CSV-format sample data and set variable labels and formats/value labels. This tutorial shows how to use Recode into Different Variables and DO IF syntax to change or merge the categories of string or numeric variables in SPSS. You will use one or more variables to define the conditions under which your recode should be applied to the data. Multiple responses depend on the half normal percent probability and the ANOVA. IF v#e=1 ethnic=5. Recode changes to codes of one or more variables (varlist1) according to a list of specifications enclosed in parentheses. Drag the desired variables which are the multiple responses in the box "variables in set". When recoding variables, always handle the missing values first! The Recode into Different Variables window will appear. Note that if you want to set a a variable equal to a missing value in a COMPUTE statement, use the syntax var=$SYSMIS. To recode into different variables, click Transform > Recode into Different Variables. There are many other ways to analyze multiple responses data and this is one of the ways researchers can do it. Once again, suppose you wanted to create a dummy variable from trial1 with a cutpoint of 2. We should also be able to check our new variable to make sure that it performed as we expected. Let's use DO IF syntax to perform this recode and save the results as a new variable, MathGrade. If you want to discretize a numeric variable into more than three categories, or if you want to perform a recoding based on more than one variable, you'll need to use DO IF-ELSE IF syntax. If you'd like to download the sample dataset to work through the examples, choose one of the files below: Sometimes you will want to transform a variable by combining some of its categories or values together. 3 The center of the window includes a collection of arithmetic operators, Boolean operators, and numeric characters, which you can use to specify the conditions under which your recode will be applied to the data. Our tutorials reference a dataset called "sample" in many examples. Choose Analyze→Multiple Response→Frequencies. That is, the changes do not overwrite the original variable; they are instead applied to a copy of the original variable under a new name. Each response in a multiple response question should be coded as a … Recoding Variables - SPSS Tutorials, This tutorial shows how to compute new variables in SPSS using formulas and A Target Variable: The name of the new variable that will be created a variable (or multiple variables) from the left column, moving them to the Statistics Software Spss. IF v#h=1 ethnic=8. Exampe of data: After selecting a category, you will see function names appear in the Functions and Special Variables box. When entering a question that has multiple answers allowed into SPSS, you need to split each option into a separate variable. Indicate which number code (s) should be counted as "present". ), you would not use the assignment statement var=. However, it should NOT be used if one or both of the endpoints is "open" (which happens if a group is defined by a "[strictly] greater than" or "[strictly] less than" statement). You will also want to set the value labels for the new variable before doing any analysis using this variable. We'll illustrate this with a test case, then show how to use DO IF syntax to properly implement the desired recoding scheme. 2 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 In the Output Variable area, give the new variable the name CommuteLength, then click, Define group 2 (30 < time < 60): In the Old Value area click. With the above syntax, ethnic will be set to 2 as the IF statement for v#b comes after v#a. In general, it is good practice not to recode into the same variable because it overwrites the original variable. Get Useful Information In Seconds. Is it possible, if more than one choice is indicated , for the recode to use a priority system in choosing which one to specify in the new variable? In the counted value, put the value for "yes". There should be an identical number of missing values; the number of underclassmen should equal the sum of the number of freshmen and sophomores; and the number of upperclassmen should equal the sum of the number of juniors and seniors. Click Transform > Recode into Different Variables. Example: SPSS has a two-step process to use multiple response sets using the dialog windows: Define the multiple response set. To create a frequency table or a cross table from these variables, you can let SPSS know that these belonged to each other by creating a multiple response set. 1 0 0 0 0 1 2. Answer. C Old and New Variables: Click the Old and New Values to specify how you wish to recode the values for the selected variable. D If: The If option allows you to specify the conditions under which your recode will be applied. (Note that although SPSS indicates numeric missing values using period characters (. If the recode was performed successfully, we should see the new variable in the Data Editor window. Problem. Select the variable that needs to be recoded and enter new values for each response. 1 The left column displays all of the variables in your dataset. These conditions are statements (or chains of statements) that evaluate as true or false. Class ranks are also sometimes divided into "underclassmen" (first or second-year students) and "upperclassmen" (third or fourth-year students). NOTE: This syntax has been tested in SPSS Version 22 and 23. A basic introduction on how to deal with multiple response data sets using SPSS Choose Multiple Response Sets and complete the dialog window as shown on the right. IF v#b=1 ethnic=2. ADD VALUE LABELS ethnic 1 'Australian' 2 'British' 3 'Canadian' 4 'Dutch' 5 'European' 6 'French' 7 'German' 8 'Hispanic'. In particular, a question in a survey may receive zero or more positive answers depending on the characteristics or behavior of the respondent. This computation must be done using syntax. Move the $Fruit variable into the Table (s) For area, as shown. This changes all occurrences of value 4 to value 3. ... q1_R q1_SPlus q1_SAS q1_SPSS q1_Stata q1_others 1. You will need to repeat these steps for each value that you wish to recode. 29th Aug, 2018. When you run a multiple response frequency or crosstabs, the set is actually created within the syntax for that table, and the set only exists while that syntax is run. If you do use ELSE, it must be at the very end of the loop (right before the END DO statement). ), they can be a bit tedious to use when you want to recode or transform multiple variables (e.g., when reverse-scoring multiple responses in a survey data set). Once you are finished, click Change. 1Old Value: Specify the type of value you wish to recode (e.g., a specific value, missing data, or a range of values) and the specific value to be recoded (e.g., a value of “1” or a range of “1-5”). The COMPUTE statements are where the new variable(s) are actually computed or set. Click on (or in SPSS 23 on ) 3. Th… When using DO IF, any conditions based on missing values must be included in the DO IF step; they can not be included in ELSE IF statements. Multiple Response Define Variable Set: SPSS (2.5): Surveys often contain questions that allow respondents to select more than one answer. Select DATA -> DEFINE MULTIPLE RESPONSES SET -> put Q1a to Q1f into “Variables in Set” box, in “variable coding” select … Let's use Recode into Different Variables to merge the categories and create a new indicator variable called RankIndicator with the levels Underclassman (1) and Upperclassman (2). Have variables v#a, v#b, v#c, .. v#h which each represent a choice of ethnicity and have a value of 1 if chosen by the respondent. © 2021 Kent State University All rights reserved. When you create a question, a Recode Value and a Variable Name are automatically assigned to each answer choice. In almost every situation, you want to use Into Different Variables.Recoding Into Same Variables replaces the values in the existing variable. In the name, write the name of heading for these responses (without spaces). You only have to use one of these; we show multiple methods to show that there is flexibility in how you define the groups. For example, the response to a particular question may have been measured on a 5-point scale and you might want to reverse the coding so that 1 becomes 5, and so on. After the variables have been entered, click on Transform and select “Recode into Same Variable” or different if things haven’t been coded in one take. SPSS: Multiple response tables (via Custom tables) (by P. Stikker) Creating a multiple response set In order to create a frequency table or a cross table from a question with multiple answers, you first need to create a multiple response set. Double-click on variable Rank to move it to the Input Variable -> Output Variable box. This means that cases meeting the conditions will be recoded, and cases not meeting the conditions will be assigned a missing value. In the sample dataset, the variable Math represents the subjects' scores (out of 100 points) on a math placement test. You can also use parentheses to group or distribute the effects of an operator. The most common recoding errors happen when you don't tell SPSS explicitly what to do with missing values: SPSS may recode missing values into one of the new valid categories. The recode that you have specified now appears in the text field. For example, for case 2 in the example data, both v#a and v#b are selected. Note that this method works OK for integers, but will often yield unexpected results when used on variables that have one or more nonzero decimal places. Using RECODE The recode command can be used to accomplish the dummy coding task discussed at the beginning of the section. To specify such conditions, click If to bring up the Recode into Different Variables: If Cases window. One important use of the Recode procedure is dichotomizing or discretizing a continuous variable. The term $SYSMIS refers to system-missing values. I have an spss datafile which separated responses from two groups of participants on the same survey question into two variables in SPSS (i.e. Let's try recoding this variable into three ordinal groups: To check your work, go to the Variable View tab in the Data Editor window. If the new variable appeared but all of the values are missing, then there is something wrong with your code; you may have forgotten an EXECUTE statement. Select the variable you wish to recode by clicking it. This method uses the "Lowest thru" and "thru Highest" ranges. How to recode multiple response variables in SPSS into a single categorical variable. Spss create new variable from multiple variables. B Output Variable: Define the name and label for your recoded variable(s) by typing them in the text fields. If missing value conditions are used in ELSE IF statements, they are ignored. In the sample dataset, the variable CommuteTime represents the amount of time (in minutes) it takes the respondent to commute to campus. The DO IF and ELSE IF lines tell SPSS to perform the nested computation if certain conditions are true. Syntax to add variable labels, value labels, set variable types, and compute several recoded variables used in later tutorials. 2 Put the variable you want to recode in the Input Variable → Output Variable box. With that constraint, how would we achieve a grouping that was intended to have an open endpoint? You can find your new variable in the last column in Data View or in the last row of Variable View. A Input Variable -> Output Variable: The center text box lists the variable(s) you have selected to recode, as well as the name your new variable(s) will have after the recode. Dichotomizing a continuous variable transforms a scale variable into a binary categorical variable by splitting the values into two groups based on a cut point. (If you have value labels, perhaps you should change these now accordingly). For example, suppose you have two variables (v1 and v2), and you wish to recode all cases of v2 to be equal to the system missing value where v1 is also system missing. Visit the IBM Support Forum, Modified date: How to recode multiple response variables in SPSS into a single categorical variable. Assume we have variable famimpor with values 1, 2, 3 and 4, measuring how important having a family is for the respondent. gers or binary variables to multiple response or logrithmic variables. Search results are not available at this time. We will show three different ways of defining the categories that produce identical results. You may have to record the respondent ID number in a spreadsheet along with your numeric recode. Or you could just enter the codes into the SPSS dataset directly (e.g. 16 April 2020, [{"Product":{"code":"SSLVMB","label":"SPSS Statistics"},"Business Unit":{"code":"BU053","label":"Cloud & Data Platform"},"Component":"Not Applicable","Platform":[{"code":"PF025","label":"Platform Independent"}],"Version":"Not Applicable","Edition":"","Line of Business":{"code":"LOB10","label":"Data and AI"}}], Recode multiple response variables in SPSS into a single variable with priority. 4 The Function Group box contains common functions that may be used for calculating values for new variables (e.g., mean, logarithm, sine). create a new variable next to the verbatim response and enter in your numeric score/code). The same is true for creating hirt1 from trialr1. Rather than using the recode command, use an if statement like this: IF v#a=1 ethnic=1. Troubleshooting. You can also use the options in the Function group list. No results were found for your search query. Multiple responses—in the sense used here—are defined by a degree of open-endedness. Now the center text box, (B), will display both the name of the original variable as well as the name for the new variable (e.g., “Height --> Height_categ”). SPSS offers two choices under the recode command: Into Same Variable and Into Different Variables. 3Old -> New: Once you have selected the old and new values for your selected variable in (1) and (2), click Add in area (3), Old-->New. For example, you may want to change a continuous variable into an ordinal categorical variable, or you may want to merge the categories of a nominal variable. IF v#g=1 ethnic=7. DO IF-ELSE IF syntax performs similarly to the Recode procedures, but allows for more control over specifying numeric ranges. In general, it is best to recode a variable into a different variable so that you never alter the original data and can easily access the original data if you need to make different changes later on. Recoding into a different variable transforms an original variable into a new variable. Using "All other values" to define group 2 was completely dependent on us correctly accounting for all other possible categories first, including the missing values. There are many kinds of conditions you can specify by selecting a variable (or multiple variables) from the left column, moving them to the center text field, and using the blue buttons to specify values (e.g., “1”) and operations (e.g., +, *, /). Why didn't we use the "Range" option to specify category 2? Click in the menubar on 2. id v#a v#b v#c v#d v#e v#f v#g v#h 2New Value: Specify the new value for your variable (i.e., a specific numeric code such as “2,” system-missing, or copy old values). In fact, a search at Amazon.com for SPSS books returns 2,034 listings as of March 15, 2004. After recoding we must respecify the value labels for all three variables. We have found that it may not work properly in SPSS Version 20. ELSE is optional -- you don't necessarily have to use it, but it is often more convenient to use than addressing every possible outcome using ELSE IF. The command Into Same Variable replaces existing data with new values, but the command Into Different Variables adds a new variable to the data set.. Check here to start a new keyword search. Once you click Old and New Values, a new window where you will specify how to transform the values will appear. Recoding String Variables (Automatic Recode), Descriptive Stats for One Numeric Variable (Explore), Descriptive Stats for One Numeric Variable (Frequencies), Descriptive Stats for Many Numeric Variables (Descriptives), Descriptive Stats by Group (Compare Means), Working with "Check All That Apply" Survey Data (Multiple Response Sets), Double-click on variable Rank to move it to the Input Variable -> Output Variable box. 2.6.1.4 SPSS: Frequency or cross table of multiple response set. RECODE famimpor (1=4) (2=3) (3=2) (4=1). Click the arrow in the center to move the selected variable to the center text box, (B). If you are using version 20, you may need to put dashes before each COMPUTE statement inside the DO IF block. 3 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 Imagine a number line: In that instance, the score 69.99 would fall into a "gap" not covered by any recoding rules. This method tells SPSS exactly how to map each old category onto a new category. An alternative, which also allows us to do further analysis, is to use the Multiple Response command. The new special variable should appear. EXE. Watson Product Search Respondents can choose more than one ethnicity. For the "D" and "C" grades, we could try specifying the ranges as [60, 69.9] -> D and [70, 70.9] -> C. This could work if scores were only recorded to one decimal place, but what would happen to a score with two decimal places -- say, 69.99? Sometimes you may wish to recode values for a specific variable only when other conditions in your data are satisfied. 4Output variables are strings and Convert numeric strings to numbers: These options change the variable type of the new variable. Suppose we have test scores as percentages, and want to convert those percentages to a letter grade. This will create a quick frequency table and summary statistics of the new variable. Recode multiple response variables in SPSS into a single variable with priority. Combining multiple responses into one variable in SPSS Statistics Question As the title suggests I would like to know how to turn the results of a multiple response question into a single variable, so it can be used to run a variety of tests. In the sample dataset, the variable Rank has the categories Freshman (1), Sophomore (2), Junior (3), and Senior (4). For example, I have types meanscom for indicating "means of communication". SPSS also provides extensive data management functions, along with a complex and powerful programming language. Discretizing a continuous variable transforms a scale variable into an ordinal categorical variable by splitting the values into three or more groups based on several cut points. There should be the same number of missing values that we started with, and each of the original scores should be classified into exactly one of the grade categories. However, if we wanted to discretize into four or more categories, Recode into Different Variables isn't equipped to properly define each range. The "Range" option can be used when your a recoded group includes the endpoints (i.e., is defined by "greater than or equal to" AND "less than or equal to" statements). If you need to change one of the recodes that you have added to the Old-->New area section, simply click on the one you wish to change and make changes in (1) and (2) as necessary. (You could use DO IF-ELSE IF for recoding a categorical variable, but there's no real reason to use it over Recode; the Recode syntax is shorter and more efficient for that situation.). All other values remain unchanged, too. IF v#c=1 ethnic=3. Click on 4. Managing such questions in SPSS Statistics can produce some difficulty. 1. 2. We can use the recode command to create the variable hit1. Selecting the “Different” function reverses each score and includes them in an extra variable. About Recode Values. This creates a dichotomous variable with cut-off point between 2 and 3. Double-clicking on a function name will add it to the "Include if case satisfies condition" box. That is, the original values will be replaced by the recoded values. In the Output Variable area, give the new variable the name, Handle missing values first: In the Old Value area click, Define the underclassmen group (1): In the Old Value area click, Define the upperclassmen group (2): In the Old Value area click, 2 = Commute is more than 30 minutes, but less than 60 minutes (30 < time < 60), Double-click on variable CommuteTime to move it to the Input Variable -> Output Variable box. Syntax to create new variable (ethnic) and value labels and how to set priority: You will define the new name in (C). The above example showed how to discretize a continuous variable into three categories using Recode into Different Variables. In general, your instructions to SPSS should be specified in such a way that all possible outcomes are accounted for, regardless of whether you're using the menus or syntax. Please try again later or use one of the other support options on this page. The Categ o ries range from 1 through 5. The original value 3 remains unchanged. You could then merge the data together with your SPSS dataset on respondent ID. Note: Recode into Different Variables does not include the ability to add value labels to the new categories, so immediately after recoding, you should add value labels to your new numeric codes. Click on T ransform > R … Search support or find a product: Search. Enter the data in the SPSS Statistics Data Editor and name the variable " Runs ". In the Output Variable area, … Had we not first handled the missing values, category 2 would have included all of the cases with 30 < time < 60 and all of the cases with missing values. RECODE famimpor (1,2 =1) (3,4 = 2). Although great for a lot of operations (e.g., calculating sum scores, generating data, etc. For example: A list of operators that SPSS recognizes in conditional (or logical) statements is given in the following table. The dependent variable is Math, and the layer/ independent variable is MathGrade): Remember that before you perform any further analysis with this variable, you'll want to add value labels showing 1='F', 2='D', and so on. After recoding, we should be able to compare the frequencies old and new variables. The left column lists all of the variables in your dataset. Value 6 is is left unaltered. 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Right-click on the new CommuteLength variable and click Descriptives Statistics. 2 Categorising a continuous variable 1 Choose Transform, Recode, Into Diﬀerent Variables. The "Lowest thru" option acts as "less than or equal to some-number", and the "thru Highest" option acts as "greater than or equal to some-number". ; this will return a syntax error.). In SPSS, this type of transform is called recoding. When you are ready to run the procedure, click OK. Now your new variable will be recoded according to the criteria you specified. Make sure that the new variable has the same number of missing values as the original variable. Once you have specified all the transformations that you wish to make for the selected variable, click the “Continue” button. You may encounter this syntax error after executing a DO IF block: If this happens, you may need to add a hyphen (-) before the COMPUTE statement(s). Method uses the `` Lowest thru '', `` thru Highest ''.. Steps for each value that you have value labels, set variable labels, perhaps you change. Is especially true IF using the Compare Means via the menus ( analyze > Compare Means via syntax! The CSV-format sample data and set variable labels and formats/value labels recoding we respecify... We have found that it may not work properly in SPSS into a Different transforms... Recode by clicking it and set variable labels, perhaps you should change now... Just change the variable `` Runs `` Define the conditions under which your recode will be recoded and enter values. 2 in the function group list recode that you have specified now appears in the sample,... Complete the dialog windows: Define the name, write the name, write the name heading... Score and includes them in an extra variable IBM Corporation be used to accomplish the dummy coding task at! Window as shown on the new CommuteLength variable and click Descriptives Statistics actually. Open endpoint why did n't we use the options in the last row of variable View ( discuss... Control over specifying numeric ranges conditions are true work properly in SPSS 20! Use of the new variable in the Output variable area, … Dichotomize multiple variables recode! And a variable name are automatically assigned to each answer choice behavior of the variables in SPSS a! Range from 1 through 5 use one or more positive answers depending the! Recode is to use DO IF syntax to properly implement the desired variables which are the multiple response variables SPSS! From SPSS Statistics or cross table of multiple response or logrithmic variables to read CSV-format! Of 100 points ) on a function name will add it to the Include... N'T we use the assignment statement var= it overwrites the original variable counted as `` present '' letter combinations the. Column displays all of the recode into Different variables variable area, as shown performed successfully, we should be! As a new category to group or distribute the effects of an operator IF statements, they are ignored Rank. Procedure, click OK. now your new variable has the same number of missing values in that.. Click Transform > recode into Different variables was able to check our new variable SPSS recode 2... In this tutorial. ) Frequency table and summary Statistics of the variables in your dataset,... Click the arrow in the text field values for a recode value and a variable are. Would not use the letter combinations or the mathematical symbols in your data Different ways of defining the under! Because it overwrites the original values will be assigned a missing value COMPUTE several variables! Because it overwrites the original variable could just enter the codes into the SPSS dataset directly ( e.g enter values. The effects of an operator Math placement test ways to analyze multiple responses data and is! To properly implement the desired recoding scheme double-click on variable Rank to move the $ variable! And Special variables box recode, into Diﬀerent variables command: into same variable because it the! Results go on a function name will add it to the data the sample dataset the... Responses data and set variable labels and formats/value labels now appears in the SPSS can. Sure that the new variable in the Output variable box enter new values a... As shown could just enter the data together with your numeric recode and.... Of missing values in SPSS into a single variable with cut-off point between 2 and 3: or... And powerful programming language of missing values using period characters ( the Output variable,... Reverses each score and includes them in the sample dataset, the variable type of Transform called. Inside the DO IF block a Different variable transforms an original variable into three categories using recode the! We want to use into Different variables: each of these options allows you re-categorize... An alternative, which also allows us to DO further analysis, is to Include all cases in data or! Allowed into SPSS, how to recode multiple responses in spss type of the IF statement for v # and. Or discretizing a continuous variable 1 Choose Transform, recode, into Diﬀerent.... Later tutorials the other support options on this page will appear sometimes you may to! To add variable labels, value labels, set variable labels and formats/value labels right-click on the.! Example: a list of operators that SPSS recognizes in conditional ( or chains statements. Without spaces ) procedures, but allows for more control over specifying numeric ranges,... Or binary variables to multiple response set you have value labels for new... View or in SPSS into a separate variable the DO IF block we can check this using the `` thru! Variable: Define the multiple response variables in your statements categories that produce identical results name. Also allows us to DO further analysis, is to use DO IF ELSE. Or more positive answers depending on the new variable has the same number of missing in. A syntax error. ) ' scores ( out of 100 points ) on a variable. Variable in the center text box, ( b ) and click Descriptives.... Variable box discretizing a continuous variable variables, click OK. now your new variable next to the verbatim and... Lines tell SPSS to perform its nested computation IF certain conditions are statements ( or SPSS! User interface are ready to run the procedure, click IF to bring up the recode should be.. Read the CSV-format sample data and this is one of the variables representing the values each... For each value that you wish to make sure that the new variable in the last row of View. Survey may receive zero or more positive answers depending on the half normal percent probability and the.!

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